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Japanese Woodblock Prints 



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in the Collection of 
the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum 



The Smithsonian 
Institution's National 
Museum of Design 



Cover: 



TotoyaHokkei (1780-1850) 

Surimono: Costume for the Shibaraku Interlude 

About 1850 

Kakuban; 21.5 x 18.4 cm. 
Purchase, Friends of the Museum 
Fund, 1969-150-1 



The word kabuki can be interpreted as a 
drama combining words and music, 
dance and movement, all skillfully ex- 
ecuted. At first the plays were per- 
formed for commoners, townsmen, and 
merchants, for Noh plays were given 
only for the nobility. Eventually the au- 
dience included members of all classes 
of society. Kabuki spoke a language that 
could be readily understood and its sub- 
ject matter was draw/4 from contempo- 
rary life or famous historical events. 
The costumes, gorgeous and elaborate, 
the huge revolving stage, and the hana- 
machi (flower walk), a platform that ex- 
tended from the stage to the rear of the 
auditorium, contributed to the excite- 
ment and magnificence of the perfor- 
mance. 



One of the most highly dramatic epi- 
sodes of Kabuki is the Shibaraku, which 
can be translated as "Wait a Moment." 
It is reminiscent of the Deus ex machina 
of western theater, for at the moment 
when the hero seems doomed, or evil is 
about to vanquish good, an intercessor 
rushes forward saying "Shibaraku" and 
the action is reversed. Hokkei's compo- 
sition of casually strewn parts of the 
costume, still billowing slightly, sug- 
gests the idea of momentary action. 

The costume for Shibaraku typically is 
an outer robe of exaggerated propor- 
tions and long trailing trousers. The 
robes shown in Hokkei's print bear 
Ichikawa Danjuro V's oversized, 
square-shaped crest. His family's inter- 
pretation of the role was unrivalled for 
generations. 



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Japanese 

Woodblock 

Prints 



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StilTHSCWV/ . 

APR 41983 }) 
Varies 



in the Collection of 
the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum 



The Smithsonian 
Institution's National 
Museum of Design 





Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Mandarin Ducks Walking on Ice 

From a series of Birds and Flowers 

About 1832-1834 

Cku-tanzaku, 37.8 x 13 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-157 

Snow, moon, and flowers are tradition- 
ally the three friends of Japanese artists 
and poets. The appropriate verse reads: 

The water is the oshidori's [duck's] loving cup. 
Love melts all harriers as quickly as 
the thin ice thaws on the ground. 



© 1979 by the Smithsonian Institution. 
All rights reserved. 
Library of Congress 
Catalog No. 79-51624 



Foreword 



Woodblock printing, an ancient craft, 
rose to its greatest heights in Japan dur- 
ing the period from the mid- 
seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth cen- 
turies. The color prints of this time, 
made for a discerning mass public, 
were highly stylized. In some respects 
similar in restriction to the Japanese 
seventeen-syllable haiku poems, they 
show equal individuality and variety. 

"Pictures of the Floating World," or 
ukiyo-e prints as they are called, depict 
everyday life — legends, fashions, 
manners, vices — and are immensely 
appealing. The Cooper-Hewitt Mu- 
seum has a collection of over 500 such 
prints, which charmingly capture his- 
torical events, festivals, and other 
commemorative occasions; courtship 
and domestic life; exquisite landscapes, 
flowers, birds, and insects; important 
actors, warriors, wrestlers, geishas, 
and courtesans — a strange, lost 
world. 



Van Gogh, Gauguin, Manet, Degas, 
Toulouse-Lautrec and many other im- 
portant Western artists were influenced 
by ukiyo-e prints. In all of us, they 
evoke a brilliant and delightful image 
of old Japan. 



Lisa Taylor 

Director 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 



The earliest known examples of wood- 
block printing in Japan date from the 
eighth century. They are relics of a 
printing feat of considerable magni- 
tude, for the Empress Shotoku, to 
appease the rebellious Buddhist priest- 
hood, ordered the printing of one 
million charms, each to be placed in a 
specially made, miniature, wooden 
pagoda. Groups of these graceful con- 
tainers with their charms were deposi- 
ted in the most important temples of 
the day. 

When the Chinese invented paper, 
shortly after 100 A.D., they immedi- 
ately began to print words on it, using 
stamps of the same kind as those used to 
impress designs on clay wall tiles. At 
this time Chinese civilization was one 
or the most advanced in the world, and 
certainly the dominant culture in the 
far east. Japan received from China, 
through Korea, the foundation of her 
civilization — science, art, literature, 
religion, and even a system of govern- 
ment. Buddhism came to Japan in the 
middle of the sixth century, and it was 
in connection with Buddhism that 
printing in Japan was first realized, tor 
only the temples had the means to un- 
dertake the time-consuming labor of 
carving and printing the long Buddhist 
texts. 



The earliest form of printed illustration 
was also connected with Buddhism. 
These were the "stamped Buddha" (im- 
butsu), three- or four-inch high impres- 
sions on paper or cloth made with ink 
and a seal or stamp, and "printed Bud- 
dha" (suriiutsu), made with ink and a 
carved woodblock. Their primary pur- 
pose was devotional rather than artistic, 
as merit was gained in the making of 
them. Rows of these Buddha images 
were stamped or printed in large num- 
bers on sheets or rolls of paper, the 
more images, the better. In general, 
printed Buddhist texts were regarded as 
utilitarian and illustrations were consid- 
ered unnecessary. As popular sects more 
concerned with reaching the people 
evolved, illustrations to the texts came 
to play a functional role. 

Buddhist domination of printing came 
to an end in the seventeenth century 
when Buddhism went into decline — 
its doctrine stagnant and its temples im- 
poverished by the long civil wars. With 
the rise of a new, highly literate class 
drawn from the samurai and the court 
nobility, books were produced on di- 
verse secular topics such as Chinese 
philosophy, military strategy and weap- 
onry, botany, medicine, and agricul- 
ture, as well as fiction. The main pub- 
lishing centers were in the capital city 
of Kyoto, Edo (now Tokyo), and 



Osaka. The increased breadth of sub- 
ject matter was a boon to the book illus- 
trators. As the publishing industry 
boomed, the market grew to include 
many who could not read and who 
wanted books with pictures. It was not 
long before Edo artists began to aban- 
don book illustration in favor of pub- 
lishing albums and single-sheet prints. 

The heyday of woodblock printing in 
Japan occurred in the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries, and it flourished 
most brilliantly in Edo. The prints il- 
lustrated here are called ukiyo-e (float- 
ing world) because they record the 
ephemeral parade of lite, and in partic- 
ular, its pleasures. Their point of view 
has been described in a novel by Asai 
Ryoi, Tales of the Floating World 
(Ukiyo Monogatari): "Living only for 
the moment, the snow, the cherry 
blossoms and the maple leaves; singing 
songs, drinking wine, diverting our- 
selves in just floating, floating. . . ." 

At the beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury various economic changes implicit 
in the shift from an agricultural to a 
mercantile economy brought townspeo- 
ple to a position of real importance. 
The samurai, or warrior class, main- 
tained their social standing, but the 
merchants had most of the money and 
most of the fun. They found their 



amusement in theaters, restaurants, 
wrestling matches, baths, and brothels. 
They mingled freely with the inhabi- 
tants of this entertaining world, who 
were contained within a special area of 
each large city. In Edo the district was 
named Yoshiwara. The speed of pro- 
duction and wide availability of the 
woodblock print provided a perfect ve- 
hicle to record fleeting, happy moments 
and to preserve the memory of a fa- 
vored person's appearance. Artists 
benefited from the new patrons who 
were less hampered by convention 
and uninhibited by tradition. Until this 
time, Japanese art had rarely escaped 
from Chinese influence, chiefly because 
the patrons were limited to the nobility, 
a class whose foundation of learning 
was Chinese. Ukiyo-e prints, however, 
can be called truly native art, for their 
subject matter was drawn directly from 
Japanese life and their printing tech- 
niques were developed in Japan. 

Although the imperial capital remained 
in Kyoto in the eighteenth century, the 
monarchy was, in fact, powerless and 
Japan was ruled by a military dictator 
(shogun) who governed from Edo. 
Since the nobles (daimyo) were re- 
quired to spend part of every year in at- 
tendance at the shogun's court, the city 
was flooded with people and became the 
center for a middle class of tradesmen, 



artisans, merchants, writers, enter- 5 

tainers, and the pleasure-loving. Nearly 
all of the prints in the Cooper-Hewitt 
collection are by Edo printmakers. 

The evolution from a simple sumi 
(lampblack) ink print to the full color 
print called nishiki (literally "brocade," 
because of its many rich colors) took a 
century to unwind. At first, the black 
ink prints were colored by hand, most 
often in orange-red and yellow (tan). 
The next development was that another 
variety of red was used (beni), some- 
times along with a black ink mixed for 
luster with lacquer or glue and embel- 
lished with scattered gold dust or brass 
filings. These prints were called 
urushi-e. Okamura Masanobu ( 1686- 
1764) is credited with introducing the 
method of printing of colors with 
blocks (benizuri-e), rather than apply- 
ing them by hand, but with only two 
colors, red and green predominating. 
Finally, Suzuki Harunobu (1724- 
1770) played a major role in the devel- 
opment of the full color print about 
1764. 

The technique is demanding and re- 
quires the cooperation of four people: 
the designer, engraver, printer, and 
publisher. First the artist draws his de- 
sign with a brush and black ink on 
thin, tough paper made from plant 



6 fibers. The paper is glued to a block of 
fine, hard wood of uniform texture. 
The wood has been cut with the grain, 
seasoned, and planed. The engraver, 
using a panoply of chisels and blades, 
excavates the unnecessary portions, leav- 
ing the areas to be printed at surface 
level. This completed block is the key 
block. Black and white impressions 
taken from it serve for the cutting of 
the additional blocks, one for each 
color, or shade of color. To keep the 
colors in register during the printing of 
the several blocks, two marks are 
carved on the edge of each to guide in 
maintaining exact margins. After the 
blocks are inked, moistened paper is 
placed on them and rubbed with a baren 
made of a paper pad and coiled bamboo 
cord sheathed in a bamboo leaf. Early 
inks were made with vegetable and 
mineral dyes, and it is the opinion of 
many connoisseurs that the substitution 
of aniline dyes in the later prints 
contributed to the decline of the art of 
woodblock printing because the colors 
lack subtlety. 

Surimono prints are distinctive because 
of their size and shape (small, almost 
square), their purpose, and their tech- 
nical refinement. They were commis- 
sioned by clients who wished to distrib- 
ute them to friends, and were specially- 
favored for new year's greetings. They 



were also made to celebrate a birth or 
marriage, to commemorate a new 
membership in a poetry club, to give 
notice of an author's or artist's change 
of name, or to publish verses of poetry 
club members. The prints were care- 
fully designed and produced with en- 
riching effects like metallic inks and 
gauffrage (kimekome, "blind" printing 
with an uninked block). 

Hashira-e (or hashirakake), pillar 
prints, are long and narrow, their 
shape deriving from the wooden pillars 
they were made to decorate. Ukiyo-e 
artists proved themselves equal to the 
challenge of designing pleasing compo- 
sitions for this difficult format. 

Japanese collectors of ukiyo-e have tra- 
ditionally preferred the earlier — 
seventeenth and eighteenth-century — 
prints. A parallel in the history of west- 
ern taste might be found in the rejec- 
tion until recent years of the work of 
mannerist artists in comparison to early 
or high renaissance masters. It cannot 
be denied that the enormous popular 
demand for prints in nineteenth- 
century Japan had an adverse effect on 
some artists. For example, the later 
work of Kunisada coarsened, and the 
individual compositions lost focus as his 
prints were churned out in too great 
numbers and in too great haste. The 



brilliant colors of the later prints ap- 
pealed strongly to westerners, who 
found them lively and gay. Japanese 
connoisseurs, traditionally more conser- 
vative in their personal tastes, found 
the soft yellows and greens of the early 
prints more desirable. Westerners, both 
aided and hampered by their inability 
to read the inscriptions or to understand 
the frequently obtuse literary allusions 
in which the cultured Japanese de- 
lighted, could accept the prints solely 
on the basis of their beautiful images. 

The difficulties encountered in the 
identification of artist and subject mat- 
ter of ukiyo-e are multiple. Documents 
that might establish birth and death 
dates are usually lacking, and the bio- 
graphies of well known artists are often 
based on legends that cannot be sub- 
stantiated. No single problem is more 
baffling than that of Japanese artists' 
names. This is partly due to the varia- 
tions possible in transliteration, but also 
relates to the common Japanese practice 
of name changing. As Laurance 
Roberts explains in his A Dictionary of 
Japanese Artists, p. ix): 

"As regard surnames, in old Japan the situation 
was much the same as in medieval Europe: only 
the highest classes or the specially privileged were 
allowed the distinction. Not until 1870 were 
commoners permitted to adopt family names. But 
unlike the Westerner, the Japanese has always 
been willing to change his name for another be- 



cause, among other reasons, he has changed his 
profession or has been adopted by someone else. 
In the world of art, the great family names of 
Kano, Tosa, Utagawa, Torii, and others were 
clearly and firmly handed down, not only to the 
direct heirs but also to deserving and particularly 
talented pupils who were sometimes even allowed 
to use the family name to show they had been ac- 
cepted into the school if not always adopted into 
the family itself. Very often, therefore, the artist 
will have had another name than the one by 
which he has come down in history. In the begin- 
ning the artists were generally either members of 
the aristocracy or the Buddhist priesthood and 
would use either a nom de plume known as an 
azana (art name) which was often no more than 
an alternate reading of the artist's given name, or 
a go, often in the form of an elaborate literary- 
pun. While some artists were satisfied with a sin- 
gle go, many felt the need for a different name 
for each aspect of their work, and some found 
they could use several score." 

For instance, the artist we know as 
Hiroshige is most often referred to as 
Ando Hiroshige, Utagawa Hiroshige, 
or Ichiryusai Hiroshige. Ando refers 
to the Ando family by whom he was 
adopted; his own father, who died when 
Hiroshige was twelve, is identified by 
some scholars as a member of the 
Tanaka family. Utagawa refers to the 
Utagawa school or fraternity of 
painters, a name bestowed upon 
Hiroshige when he was fifteen and had 
just completed his studies with Uta- 
gawa Toyohiro. In fact, the name 
Hiroshige appears for the first time on 
the diploma given him by Toyohiro. 



Ichiryusai is one of the several go 
(artist's names) which Hiroshige used 
during his lifetime. Katsushika (origi- 
nally Nakajima) Hokusai used over 
fifty go in the course of his long life. 

Because of the method of training art- 
ists, there was a continuity of style from 
one generation to another. A pupil ac- 
cepted by one of the masters worked as 
an apprentice in a trade, following the 
master's instructions and turning out 
pictures that resembled the master's as 
closely as possible. Reverence for the 
master was so deeply felt that pupils 
claimed the right to sign the master's 
name instead of their own if they con- 
sidered themselves worthy. The greater 
artists, of course, soon revealed their 
own individuality even if their begin- 
nings were influenced by the teacher's 
style. 

Among the most talented artists repre- 
sented in the Cooper-Hewitt collection 
is Katsukawa Shunsho, who exerted 
wide influence as a teacher. His many 
actor prints were admired because of 
his ability to capture individual per- 
sonal characteristics while at the same 
time creating finely balanced abstract 
compositions. The forms of the figures 
and the stage properties play against 
each other to build tension that antici- 
pates dramatic action. 



Katsushika Hokusai was one of 
Shunsho's many pupils. His work has 
survived the test of time and seems vi- 
tal and inventive today. Restless, almost 
bohemian in his habits, he constantly 
changed his residence as well as his 
name. His best known and most mas- 
terful prints are the views of Mt. Fuji, 
a series begun when he was seventy 
years old. The great landscapes are con- 
sidered to be the pinnacle of his career, 
and Hokusai in his journal, said of this 
period of his life: "I finally appre- 
hended something of the true quality of 
birds, animals, insects, fish and of the 
vital nature of grasses and trees." In 
large part his appeal for us is in his 
imagination and humor. 

The second great ukiyo-e landscapist 
was Ando Hiroshige who was born 
nearly forty years after Hokusai. Their 
prints vary markedly in mood and exe- 
cution — Hokusai's are explosive, full 
of energy, and basically linear; 
Hiroshige's quiet and poetic, conceived 
in large planes of flat color. Hiroshige 
exhibited his artistic inclinations as an 
adolescent and began to concentrate on 
landscapes when he was about thirty 
years old. His enormous production of 
prints shows great technical virtuosity 
and his delightful scenes were more re- 
sponsible than those of any other artist 
for the westerner's view of Japan. The 



universal favorite is his series devoted 
to the Tokaido road, printed in the 
1830s. these were produced from 
drawings Hiroshige made in the course 
of his own journey down the road in 
the procession of the shogun. He spent 
much of his life traveling around 
Japan, and many other landscape prints 
resulted, along with charming prints ot 
birds and flowers, and fish. 

Totoya Hokkei was one of Katsushika 
Hokusai's most faithful pupils. His 
production of single sheet woodcuts was 
limited but he illustrated some forty 
books and his many illustrations for sa- 
tirical poems and surimono reveal an 
able draftsman. 

Utagawa Toyokuni and his numerous 
pupils dominated the ukiyo-e scene well 
past the mid-nineteenth century. Born 
the son of a woodcarver, print design- 
ing was a natural step for Toyokuni. 
His work is divided almost equally be- 
tween depictions of beautiful women 
and portraits of actors. Several of his 
pupils are represented in the Cooper- 
Hewitt collections, among them Uta- 
gawa Kuninaga, a book illustrator and 
lantern painter as well as a print maker, 
who was strongly influenced by western 
art, and Utagawa Kuniyoshi, an erratic 
artist with a taste for fantasy. Another 
was Utagawa Kunisada, a prolific artist 



who produced well over 10,000 prints 
during his active sixty-year career. He 
also illustrated dozens of novels, in- 
cluding Ryutei Tanehiko's most fa- 
mous work, Nise Murasaki Inaka 
Genji (The Pseudo-Murasaki's Coun- 
try Genji). 160 volumes, 1829-1842. 

Kunisada's work, particularly the actor 
prints that were his specialty, was ex- 
tremely popular with the mass audi- 
ence. His pupil and son-in-law, 
Ichiunsai Kunihisa, was also his collab- 
orator, usually in providing the land- 
scape backgrounds for Kunisada's fig- 
ures. The production of all of these 
Edo artists was prodigious and each had 
pupils, many of whom designed thou- 
sands of prints as well. 

With the twentieth century, the influ- 
ences from the west became more ap- 
parent. Kawase Hasui carried on the 
traditional methods of Japanese crafts- 
manship in printing and choice of 
native landscape subjects, but his juxta- 
posing of colors and the atmospheric 
effects achieved by means of uneven 
inking of the blocks indicate his famil- 
iarity with French impressionism. 

Among the Japanese, art has existed not 
as a luxury but as an inseparable part of 
daily living. Japanese woodblock prints 
were made for an energetic, literate, 



and witty society. Restricted by law 
from ostentatious display in their mate- 
rial possessions and even in their cloth- 
ing, the Japanese found in the enter- 
tainment of restaurants, the theater, the 
courtesans, and literature a relief from 
this mild oppression. The warm colors 
and graceful rhythms of the ukiyo-e 
prints that recorded their frivolities and 
their beautiful landscapes were the 
means of extending their pleasures. Be- 
cause of the artist's skill in his craft, 
those pleasures are also extended to us. 



Elaine Evans Dee 




Katsukawa Shunsho 

(1726-1792) 

The Actor Iwai Hanshiro IV in a 
Female Role, Holding a Parasol 

About 1780 

Hosoban, 32.5 x 14.2 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-152 



Shunsho revived the art of theatrical 
prints and actor portraits at a moment 
when prints of fashionably dressed 
women had all but captured popular 
taste in Edo. His close-up views of in- 
dividualized figures and decorative fab- 
ric patterns served as important exam- 
ples for later artists, including his pupil 
Hokusai. In Japanese theater, as in 
Shakespeare's day, there were no ac- 
tresses; only men were cast in Kabuki 
roles. Hanshiro's delicate facial features 
and elaborate hair styling have been ex- 
aggerated in the aim of femininity, and 
only the fabric covering the forehead 
identifies this figure as a male imper- 
sonating a female. 




Utagawa Toyokuni I (1769-1825) 

The Actors Sawamura Geno- 
suke (in the role of Abe no 
Yasuna) and Segawa Roko (in 
the role of Kuza no Ha) 

About 1790 

Hosoban, 32.2 x 14.7 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-138 



By isolating the actors from any back- 
ground, Toyokuni emphasized person- 
ality in his prints rather than theatrical 
roles. In early prints, he often com- 
bined delicate facial features with 
broadly outlined bodies and costumes. 
Toward the turn of the century, his 
figure style became less and less refined. 
The willowy profile of the standing ac- 
tor in this print is typical of Toyokuni's 
early works, as are the lines defining 
the seated figure's lap. The toppled 
mirror stand, probably overturned dur- 
ing a fit of passion, shows the same ex- 
aggerated attenuation as the figures. 



Utagawa Toyokuni I (1769-1825) 

The Actor Hagino Isaburo as a 
Samurai Drawing his Sword 

About 1815; publisher, Matsuasu 
Hosoban, 31.5 x 14.3 cm. 
Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 
Patterson, 1941-31-142 



The object of Hagino Isaburo's cross- 
eyed glare lies somewhere outside the 
confines of the print. With one hand on 
the hilt of his sword, the other on the 
handle, and elbow poised, the figure 
conveys all the combative energy ap- 
propriate to a samurai. The bright 
stripes and stylized angularity of his 
robes contribute to the drama of the 
composition. 




12 



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-V-- 



Mataunami Shigeoki, after 
Tatsukata Matsuoka 

Instructions for Wearing the 
Twelve Layers of Imperial Court 
Costume (Juni tan chakuyo zu) 

1801 

33.8 x 50.8 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-58 



According to the inscription on the 
print, Shigeoki was the apprentice of 
Tatsukata Matsuoka who worked on the 
island of Kyshu. 

The full dress (mononogu) worn on for- 
mal occasions by the empress and court 
ladies of higher ranks consisted of 
twelve individual items. First came the 
chemise of white silk, which was short 
and tucked in at the waist. Over this 
were four robes identical in shape, each 
showing at the collar, hems, and sleeves 
a glimpse of the one next below it. 
These garments were of rich silk, their 
colors and patterns being subject to reg- 
ulation that changed from time to 
time. Under these robes the lady wore 
a pair of voluminous "trousers" of stiff 
silk that more than covered her feet, 
on which she wore socks. Last came the 
wide-pleated train (mo) of thin, white, 



embroidered silk, here showing the im- 
perial design of phoenix birds and 
paulownia trees. Three pairs of stream- 
ers trailed freely at either side of the 
train. 

The coiffure to be worn with this cos- 
tume was also prescribed. It was parted 
in the middle and combed back into a 
long tail of seven feet or so, assisted by 
the addition of false hair, tied with silk, 
and at intervals bound with white paper 
cord. The gilt metal disk in her hair, 
shown here, was worn on special occa- 
sions. 

The face and neck were painted white, 
and eyebrows painted high on the fore- 
head replaced the shaved natural ones. 
A ceremonial fan decorated with rib- 
bons and plum blossoms, or as in this 
print, pine sprays, completed the cos- 
tume. 







Utagawa Kuninaga (active by 
1806-1 829) 

Beauties Impersonating the Eight 
Sennin 

1818 

Oban triptych, 37.4 x 75 cm. 
Purchase in memory of Mrs. Charles 
B. Alexander, 1963-12-1 



Sennin are immortals who have gained 
magical powers through asceticism and 
the teachings of Taoism. The sennin en- 
countered so often in Chinese and Japa- 
nese lore are usually pictured as wi- 
zened old men with large ears, scanty 
clothing, and long beards. Kuninaga's 
triptych, however, illustrates eight of 
the sennins attributes, and here the 
Taoist ascetics appear in the guise of 
eight fashionable Edo beauties. In the 
left panel, Chokwaro releases a magic 
horse from a gourd; Oshikyo rides a 
white crane. The center panel depicts 
Kinko riding her carp-steed, Chinnan 



conjuring a dragon, and Tekkai breath- 
ing forth a reproduction of herself The 
right panel depicts Koreijin with a ti- 
ger, Chokiuka transforming cuttings 
from her robes into butterflies, and 
Gama playing with her toad. 



14 




Ryuryukyo Shinsai (1764?- 1820) 



Surimono. 
Clock 



Painted Scroll and 



About 1800 

Kakuban, 20.5 x 18.3 cm. 

Gift of Mrs. William Greenough, 

1941-49-53 

This print is a particularly appropriate 
new year's greeting, with its clock and 
picture of the treasure ship which was 
the vehicle for the seven gods of good 
fortune: Hotei (contentment), Fukuro- 
kuju and Jurojin (longevity), Bishamon 
and Daikoku (riches), Benten (beauty 
and music), and Ebisu (daily food). 




Teisai Hokuba (1771-1844) 

Surimono: Scene from a Noh 
Drama 

About 1830 

Kakuban, 20.6 x 18.3 cm. 

Gift of Mrs. William Greenough, 

1941-49-55 

The scene showing a man holding out 
his string of Buddhist rosary beads be- 
fore a masked demon who towers over 
him is doubtless drawn from a Noh 
drama. Noh is the classic, lyric, court 
drama of Japan, blending dance, pan- 
tomine, and music with moral instruc- 
tion. The formula is rigid, the action 
symbolic and slow, and the language 
obscure and understated. 




15 



Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) 

Kajikazawa in Kai Province 

(Koshu Kajikazawa) 

From the series, Thirty-six Views of 
Mt. Fuji (Fugaku Sanjiiroku Kei) 
1823-31; publisher, Eijudo 
Oban, 26 x 37.8 cm. 
Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 
Patterson, 1941-31-117 



The pure symmetry of Mt. Fuji's cone 
is a symbol of Japan's scenic beauty as 
well as of the spiritual significance of 
nature in a land so dominated by its to- 
pography. Here a lone fisherman and 
his young assistant are perched on a 
promontory overhanging pounding 
surf. The foamy crests recall Hokusai's 
most famous print, "The Great Wave 
off Kanagawa." By means of a single 
line, Hokusai suggests the serenity of 
Mt. Fuji rising above dense fog to pre- 
side over the landscape. The careful 
foreground arrangement of the jutting 



crag, the stooping fisherman, and the 
extended lines of his net complete a tri- 
angle that repeats Fuji's symmetry, a 
compositional device that Hokusai fre- 
quently exploited in the other prints in 
this series. 

The subdued tones of blue and green 
are also characteristic of Hokusai's 
work. His use of such broad areas of a 
single color was daring and, in the 
hands of a skillful printer, it allowed 
subtle gradations of tone that remain 
powerfully evocative. 



16 




Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) 

"Fuji-view" Fields (Bishu Fujimi- 
gahara) in Owari Province 

From the series, Thirty-six Views of 
Mt. Fuji (Fugaku Sanjuroku Kei) 
1823-1831; publisher, Eijudo 
Oban, 25 x 37. 1 cm. 
Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 
Patterson, 1941-31-113 



The province of Owari is considerably 
west of Edo, yet the silhouette of Mt. 
Fuji is still visible on the horizon in 
Hokusai's famous view. An aging 
cooper with a caulking brush kneels in- 
side the huge tub which frames him 
and the diminished peak in the dis- 
tance. Hokusai worked for many years 
as a book illustrator and published sev- 
eral manuals of drawing techniques. 



He was a master of depicting the hu- 
man figure. The few lines that define 
the old man's bony limbs and whimsical 
facial expression are typical of 
Hokusai's angular style of drawing. 



Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) 

Scene from the Chushingura 
(The Loyal League of Forty- 
seven Ronin) 

About 1800 

Aiban, 34.3 x 22.6 cm 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-111 



The most popular Kabuki drama, 
Chushingura, celebrates all the qualities 
of unquestioning loyalty, devotion to a 
superior, and courtly etiquette that are 
intensely Japanese. The eleven-act play, 
based on an actual event that occurred 
in 1701, presents the tale of Hangan 
(sometimes called Yenya), a nobleman 
who draws his sword against another 
nobleman, Moronao, after enduring 
his ceaseless insults. The act violated 
the laws of the court, and thus Hangan 
was condemned to commit seppuku, the 
nobility's ritual of suicide. His re- 
tainers became ronin, or men without a 
leader, and the forty-seven who re- 
mained loyal formed a league under 
Oboshi Yuranosuke, Hangan's devoted 
chief retainer, to seek revenge on the 
wicked Moronao. Having avenged the 
death of their lord, the forty-seven 
ronin committed seppuku and were bur- 
ied together. 

In this night scene by Hokusai, 
Yuranosuke has disguised himself as a 
drunk asleep in the road with straw 
hat tossed aside, geta (wooden sandals) 
untied, and over-turned sake pot 
nearby. An unwitting samurai assaults 
the hero for his disgraceful appear- 
ance. 




17 




Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Act II from the series, 
Chushingura (The Loyal League 
of Forty-Seven Ronin) 

1836; publisher, Senichi 

Oban, 24 x 36.4 cm. 

Purchase, in memory of Herman A. 

Elsberg, 1962-197-1 



In Hiroshige 's series of sixteen prints 
showing scenes from the Chushingura, 
each composition is enclosed in a 
fretwork border that incorporates the 
double tomoe crest (intersecting comma 
shapes) of Oishi Kuranosoke, the actual 
hero of the historical events. His name 
is thinly disguised in the play as Oboshi 
Yuranosuke. 

The scene in Act II takes place in the 
residence of the nobleman Wakasa, a 
friend of Hangan's and enemy of 
Moronao. A pair of lovers who figure 
in the story is in the foreground, ob- 
served by the girl's mother hiding be- 
hind a screen. The bamboo design of 



the screen bears the signature of Mo- 
to-oka, one of the names of the artist 
Okajima Rinsai who was believed to 
have been Hiroshige's first teacher. 

On a veranda across the garden, 
Wakasa's attendant, Honzo, has just cut 
off a pine branch with his master's 
sword. By sheathing it without first 
wiping clean the thick, sticky pine 
pitch, Honzo hopes to prevent Wakasa 
from emulating Hangan's fatal mistake 
of drawing his sword against the vil- 
lainous Moronao. 




Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 
Hakone, The Lake (Hakone kosui) 

No. 11 from the series, 

Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido 

(Tokaido Gojusan Tsugi) 

[834; publisher, Hoeid5 

Oban, 22.8 x 35.3 cm. 

Gift of Mary Rutherford Jay, 

1948-134-11 

Mt. Fuji is only one example of Japan's 
varied volcanic scenery. The region of 
Hakone is famous for rugged, volcanic 
terrain which is very different from the 
gradual slope of Mt. Fuji, visible from 
the lake. In Hiroshige's view, a 
daimyo's (noble's) procession with men 
carrying litters and banners winds its 
way through a narrow gorge beneath 
steep-faced peaks. Soil and vegetation 
appear as boldly colored patchwork 
above the travelers. Below, Lake 
Hakone extends past a small village to 
the foot of a distant mountain range. 



19 




Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Yellow Dusk at Numazu 

(Numazu kikure) 

No. 13 from the series, 

Fiftv-three Stations of the Tokaido 

(Tokaido Gojusan Tsugi) 

1 833-4; publisher, Hoeido 

Oban, 22.3 x }5 cm. 

Gift of Mary Rutherford Jay, 

1948-134-13 

Following a narrow, riverside path, 
three travelers approach the village of 
Numazu by the light of the full moon. 
Its pale glow silhouettes the roadside 
trees but barely penetrates the forest on 
the opposite bank. The large mask 
that the man carries on his back 
identifies the group as pilgrims to the 
Shinto shrine of Kompira on the island 
of Shinkoku. 



20 




Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Kambara, Night Snow (Kambara, 
yoru no yuki) 

No. 16 from the series, 

Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido 

(Tokaido Gojusan Tsugi) 

1834; publisher, Takenouchi-Hoeido 

Oban, 22.7 x 35.4 cm. 

Gift of Mary Rutherford Jay, 

1948-134-16 



The night view of Kambara under 
heavy snow is one of the most famous 
prints of the Tokaido series. Three 
peasants trudge on undeterred by the 
snow-covered surface of the highway. 
One figure in geta (wooden sandals) 
covers his head with a half-closed um- 
brella. The configuration of village 
rooftops subtly complements the shape 
of the distant mountains and closely re- 
sembles Hiroshige's rhythmic treatment 
of rooflines in other views from this 
series. 




Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Utsu Mountain, Okabe (Okabe, 
Utsu noyama) 

No. 22 from the series, 
Fifty-three Stations of the Tokaido 
(Tokaido Gojilsan Tsugi) 

1833-4; publisher, Hoeido 

Oban, 23.6 x 36.4 cm. 

Gift of Mary Rutherford Jay, 

1948-134-22 



The stone embankment of a mountain 
stream provides a road for travelers as- 
cending from both sides of this moun- 
tain pass. The walls of the gorge sup- 
port a few gnarled trees which catch the 
sunlight from the overlook. Dark flecks 
on the mountains beyond the roofs of 
the village of Okabe suggest the same 
meager forestation. The subtle grada- 
tions of green, blue, and gray are cru- 
cial in this print, for they alone create 
depth and texture in the landscape. 



22 




Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Ghiryu, The Great Summer 
Horse Fair (Chiryu, shuka 
uma-ichi) 

No. 40 from the series, 

Fifty-Three Stations of the Tokaido 

(Tokaido Gojiisan Tsugi) 

1833-4; publisher, Hoeido 

Oban, 22.9 x 35. 1 cm. 

Gift of Mary Rutherford Jay, 

1948-134-40 

Grazing in a field of tall grass, groups 
of tethered horses await the arrival of 
the buyers who gather under a lone, tall 
tree. 



Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Shono, White Rain {Shono, 
haku-u) 

No. 46 from the series, 

Fifty-three Stations of the TokaidS 

(Tokaido Gojiisan Tsugi) 

1833-4; publisher, Hoeido 

Oban, 22.5 x 34.7 cm. 

Gift of Mary Rutherford Jay, 

1948-134-46 

Hiroshige's image of driving sheets of 
rain, branches bowing in a gale, and 
travelers running for cover is one of 
the most famous of all Japanese prints. 
Climbing a road past the village, por- 
ters transporting a passenger by kago 
(an open-sided sedan chair) pass two 
figures who dash headlong into the 
wind and rain. One grips the brim of 
his straw hat; the other proceeds blindly 
behind the cover of his umbrella. The 
randomly intersecting lines of rain and 
the separately printed grey bands of fo- 
liage enhance our sensation of the squall 
and demonstrate Hiroshige's complete 
mastery of the woodblock medium. 




23 



Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Sakanoshita, Fudesute Mountain 
{Sakanoshita, Fudesute mine) 

No. 49 from the series, 
Fifty-three Stations of the Tbkaido 
( Tokaido Gojiisan Tsugi) 

1833-4; publisher, Hoeido 

Oban, 23.9 x 36.7 cm. 

Gift of Mary Rutherford Jay, 

1948-134-49 



At the right, a group of guests rests in 
a rude shelter after a mountain ascent. 
One, with brush and paper in hand, in- 
spired by the view of the mountain 
across the chasm, is apparently writing 
a poem which will, no doubt, be hung 
from the roof beams in company with 
the literary efforts of previous trav- 
elers. 

Hiroshige's genius as a draftsman is ev- 
ident in the way the facial expression of 
the man at the edge of the precipice, 



gazing in awe at the landscape, is cap- 
tured in the most summary and eco- 
nomical terms. The artist's knowledge 
of Chinese painting is revealed through 
his rendering of the rocky crags across 
the chasm. 




Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

The Suido Bridge and 
Suruga Plain (Suidobashi, 
Surugadai) 

From the series, One Hundred Views of 

Edo (Meisho Edo Hyakkei) 

1857; publisher, Uoei 

Oban, 33.8 x 22.2 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-297 



In this bird's-eye view of the Suruga 
plain, huge paper kites hang from 
poles, like wind socks, and numerous 
banners appear among the rooftops in 
the distance. During Boys' Festival 
(May 5), it is appropriate that carp 
dominate the skyline, for they symbol- 
ize perseverance to the Japanese. 
Hiroshige repeatedly organized his up- 
right compositions around some strik- 
ing foreground element, and the carp 
follows this formula. It creates depth 
through the use of flat elements, simul- 
taneously drawing the viewer into the 
print and stressing the bold surface pat- 
tern traditionally associated with Japa- 
nese woodblock prints. 



Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

Ferry at Kawaguchi and the 
Zenkoji Temple (Kawaguchi no 
watashi to Zenkoji) 

From the series, One Hundred Views of 

Edo (Meisho Edo Hyakkei) 

1857; publisher, Uoei 

Oban, 33.9 x 22.5 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-275 



As the ferry-boat full of passengers 
crosses a stream, lumber rafts pass, 
propelled by punters in straw hats. The 
Zenkoji Temple appears on the oppo- 
site shore, partially obscured by a dense 
grove of trees. 




26 




Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

The Eko-in Temple and the 
Moto-yanagi Bridge, Ryogoku 

(Ryogoku Eko-in, Moto-yanagibashi) 

From the series, One Hundred Views of 

Edo (Meisho Edo Hyakkei) 

1_857; publisher, Uoei 

Oban, 34 x 22.3 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-287 



The flags that hang from the tall, 
wooden scaffolding indicate that a wres- 
tling match is underway. Beyond lies 
the Sumida River with junks and 
barges passing, and beyond them is the 
Moto-yanagi Bridge. Snow covers the 
distant Mt. Fuji. As in other examples 
from the same series, a vertical element 
dominates the foreground of this print. 
Compositional effect was clearly more 
important to the artist than factual doc- 
umentation, for the posts of the tower 
rise somewhat awkwardly out of the 
rooftops below them. 



Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

The Gateway to the Kinryuzan 
Temple, Asakusa (Asakusa, 
Kinryuzan) 

From the series, One Hundred Views of 

Edo (Meisho Edo Hyakkei) 

1856; publisher, Uoei 

Oban, 34 x 22.5 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-291 



Snow and moonlight scenes have always 
been among the most sought-after 
prints by Hiroshige, and this well 
known view of the Asakusa Temple is 
frequently displayed and reproduced. 
By partially framing the temple within 
a doorway and including a large paper 
lantern in the upper third of the print, 
Hiroshige defies the boundary be- 
tween the viewer's space and the picture 
space. The low vantage point places us 
in the courtyard among the people who 
approach the temple through the snow. 












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27 





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Ando Hiroshige (1797-1858) 

The Great Wave at Satta Beach, 
Suruga 

From the series, The Thirty-Six Views 

of Fuji (Fuji Sanjuroku Kei) 

1858; publisher, Tsutaya Kichizo 

Oban, 33.6 x 22.2 cm. 

Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson, 1941-31-120 



Hiroshige's print of a "great wave" au- 
tomatically recalls Hokusai's monumen- 
tal depiction of the same subject 
published almost thirty years before. In 
contrast to Hokusai's version, in which 
a wall of water towers above man and 
mountain, Hiroshige's boats sail on 
peaceful waters, safe from the crest of 
the wave in the foreground, which only 
appears to crash down upon them. 
Here Fuji and the nearby cliffs equal the 
wave in height. The impact of the print 
relies on the sweeping curl of the wave 
that stretches from margin to margin 
and the agitated tops of the swells in the 
foreground. 



Keisai Eisen (1790-1848) 
Mariko 

From the series, Courtesans and Post- 
ing Stations (Keisei dochu sugoruku) 
About 1830; publisher, Tsutaya 
Kichizo 

Oban, 35.4 x 24.3 cm. 
Gift of the Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 
Patterson, 1941-31-148 



Although Eisen collaborated with 
Hiroshige on the series "Sixty-nine 
Stations of the Kiso Highway," he is 
probably better known for his prints of 
beautiful women. In this series he has 
accomplished a combination of the two 
genres. The view in the cartouche at 
the left is of Mariko, one of the fifty- 
three stations on the TSkaido road, 
and a graceful courtesan in her many- 
patterned costume and elaborate hair 
ornaments dominates the composition. 

From the seventeenth century on, 
brothels in Japan were strictly con- 
trolled by the government. In Edo, as 
in other towns, the pleasure quarters 
were a conspicuous feature of city life 
and courtesans (as well as their patrons) 
supplied ready-made subjects for prints 
that were in great demand. There was a 
strict hierarchy among the courtesans 
and only a few achieved "highest rank- 
ing." The geishas, ranked lower than 
courtesans, were skilled in music and 
dancing, but beauty of appearance was 
a prime requisite for both. 




29 



30 




Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1864) 

The Actor Matsumoto Koshiro 
Leaping through a Wall 

About 1840 

Oban, 38.8 x26.5 cm. 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Maxime 

Hermanos, 1966-7-30 



The Kabuki theater took definite shape 
during the brilliant flowering of culture 
and civilization under Tokugawa rule. 
Printmakers were directly affected by 
the demand for advertisements, por- 
traits of actors, and scenes from popu- 
lar plays. The collecting of actors' por- 
traits became the rage. 

Until the nineteenth century, when they 
became more versatile, actors were 
confined to a single kind of role — vil- 
lain, hero, or female. Actors trained 
their own children in their own roles, 
or adopted boys in order to carry on the 
name, a practice still followed in Japan 
today. Matsumoto Koshiro VII, one of 
whose predecessors is portrayed here, 
and who was considered one of the 
greatest Kabuki actors, died only 
twenty years ago. 

Since Kunisada sometimes signed him- 
self as Toyokuni (two other artists used 
this name), definite attribution often 
becomes difficult, and one must rely ex- 
clusively on stylistic evidence. In this 
example with a Toyokuni signature, the 
hasty conception of rocks and foliage, 
along with the convention of curving 
and oddly jointed fingers and toes, 
strongly suggest that Kunisada was the 
artist. 



Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1864) 

Hanashigomano Chokichi 
Drawing his Sword 

About 1850; publisher, Tsutaya 

Kichizo 

Oban, 36.2 x 25.2 cm. 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. William 

Franklin Mitchell, 1955-111-86 



The influence of the theater on Japanese 
life was pervasive. Not only did the 
plots and language of the plavs affect 
behavior and speech, but fabric design 
and hair styles of favorite actors were 
emulated. The boldly striped or 
checked fabrics such as this actor wears 
are now called genroku after the 
Genroku period (1688-1704) when 
these patterns became most popular. 





Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1864) 

Man Grossing a Bridge in the 
Snow 

1854 

Oban, 35.9 x 25.9 cm. (part of a trip- 
tych) 

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. William 
Franklin Mitchell, 1955-111-85 



Although Kunisada's print reveals some 
awkward handling of the spatial rela- 
tionships between the figure and the ar- 
chitectural elements of the background, 
and a decidedly lumpy rendering of the 
falling snow flakes, the figure itself 
shows the sophistication and attention to 
detail of which the artist was capable. 

The subject wears a lined kimono 
against the rigors of the weather, over 
which for further warmth he wears a 
haori, a short coat open at the front and 
loosely fastened across the chest with 
silk cords. As is traditional, his haori is 
of striped fabric, and is decorated with 
family crests. The geta (wooden san- 
dals) he wears are raised high enough 
from the ground to protect his feet and 
the hem of his kimono from the snow. 
Until the end of the eighteenth century, 
only men carried umbrellas in Japan. 



Utagawa Kunisada ( 1786-1864) 

The Sumo Wrestler, Koyanagi 
Tsunekichi 

About 1840; publisher, Joshuya 
Oban, 37 .5 x 25.5 cm. 
Transfer from the Cooper-Hewitt 
Library, 1957-148-65 



To the Japanese, wrestling (sumo) is not 
a mere feat of strength. It has always 
been regarded as an effective medium 
for spiritual as well as physical develop- 
ment of young men. The wrestling 
match itself progresses through a 
series of rituals performed by the two 
contestants. The technique of throwing 
an opponent in the ring or ejecting him 
from it is complicated, but the two 
hundred or more hand motions em- 
ployed by the wrestler are based on 
three fundamental methods — thrust- 
ing (with the palms), pushing (with the 
fingers), and clinching and grappling. 

The wrestler in Kumsada's print is 
shown standing in a square ring of hard 
clay bounded with bales of straw. His 
long topknot indicates that he is a wres- 
tler of first rank. The floor of the ring 
appears to be dotted with the salt, sym- 
bolic of purity, which is thrown into 
the ring by the wrestlers before the 
match. Koyanagi Tsunekichi, however, 
is wearing his ceremonial, decorated 
loin cloth, thus it does not appear that 
he is about to engage in a contest but, 
rather, has posed for his portrait in 
suitable attire. 

Kunisada has magnified the figure's 
bulk by nearly filling the page with it, 
stressing the lighter areas of the upper 
torso, and emphasizing the broad, hori- 
zontal stripes of the loin cloth. 




34 




Ichiunsai Kunihisa ( 1832-1891) 

Two Actors, Ichikawa Kichi- 
yoshi and Bando Hikosaburo, 
under a Waterfall 

1862; publishers, Santsu Itosho and 
Fukabori Iccho 
Oban, 36.2 x 25.2 cm. 
Purchase in memory of Edward 
Ringwood Hewitt, Edith Wetmore, 
and others, 1968-96-1 



It seems there was no limit to the in- 
vention of stage effects, including wa- 
terfalls, in Kabuki theater. At a time 
when Shakespearean plays were being 
performed in comparatively simple 
theaters, the Japanese had revolving 
stages, trap door devices for precipitous 
exits and entrances, and elaborate light- 
ing, all within a highly ritualized set- 
ting. 

In the tradition of Hokusai and Eisen 
before him, Kunihisa has ably solved 
the difficult problem of representing a 
volume of water within a rigid two- 
dimensional format, and with a limited 
range of colors. 








35 



Kawase Hasui (1883-1957) 

Zaimoku-jima at Matshushima 

1933; publisher, Watanabe 

Oban, 39.3 x 26.5 cm. 

Gift of Asaka Matsuoka, 1960-68-3 

The traditional methods of woodblock 
printing have persisted into the twenti- 
eth century. Hasui's treatment of water 
demonstrates a technical facility that be- 
lies the laborious process of multiple 
printing and registration. (This print 
required twenty-five superimposed 
printings from twenty blocks.) Mat- 
sushima Bay, long famous as one of 
Japan's "Three Great Sights," is dotted 
with volcanic islands shaped by erod- 
ing wind and water. An earlier guide- 
book aptly describes the view as if the 
author were looking at Hasui's print: 



"On a perfect day in June, when white-sailed 
junks drift lazily over the translucent water and 
blend their ghostly shadows in the depths with 
those of the billowy galleons that ride majestically 
across the airy sea above, the bay seems touched 
by the magic hand of some transcendent genius, 
and its beauty is one that lingers long in the 
mind." {Terry's Guide to the Japanese Empire, 
Boston and New York, 1920, p. 312.) 



Kawase Hasui (1883-1957) 
Saishoin Temple at Hirosaki 



About 1920 

Oban, 39.3 x 26.4 cm. 

Gift of Asaka Matsuoka, 



1960-68-2 



Hirosaki is in the northernmost prov- 
ince of Japan, thus it is not surprising 
that this modern landscape print ex- 
presses the ever-popular Japanese theme 
of snow. A lone figure under an um- 
brella passes before the temple as sun- 
light penetrates the snow just enough to 
tint the branches of the tall trees. 

Hasui often uses various textures and 
densities of ink, some quite transparent 
and others opaque, and here the tech- 
nique skillfully suggests intermittent 
sunlight, seen through the lightly tail- 
ing snow, and the blue shadows that 
cover the ground. 



?6 Brief Bibliography 

Binyon, Laurence. A Catalogue of Japanese and Chinese Woodcuts . . . in the British Museum. 
London, 1916. 

and Sexton, J.J. O'Brien. Japanese Colour Prints. London, 1923. Reprint; 1960. 

Bowers, Faubion. Japanese Theater. New York, 1952. Reprint; Rutland, Vt., and Tokyo 
(paperback), 1974. 

Hillier, Jack. Hokusai: Paintings, Drawings, and Woodcuts. London, 1955. 

. The Japanese Print: A New Approach. Rutland, Vt., and Tokyo, 1960. 

. Japanese Prints and Drawings from the Vever Collection. 3 vols. New York, 1976. 

Keyes, Roger S., and Mizushima, Keiko. The Theatrical World of Osaka Prints: A Collection of 
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Japanese Woodblock Prints in the Philadelphia Mu- 
suemofArt. Boston, 1973. 

Koop, Albert J. Victoria and Albert Museum: Guide to the Japanese Textiles: Part II — Costume. 
London, 1920. 

Lane, Richard. Images from the Floating World: The Japanese Print. New York, 1978. 

Narazaki, Muneshige. The Japanese Print: Its Evolution and Essence. Tokyo and Palo Alto, 
Calif., 1966. 

Roberts, Laurance P. A Dictionary of Japanese Artists. New York, 1977. 

Sansom, George B. Japan: A Short Cultural History. London, 1931. Rev. ed., 1943; 2d rev. 
ed., 1962. 

Statler, Oliver. Japanese Inn. New York, 1961. 

Stern, Harold P. Master Prints of Japan. New York, 1969. 

Stewart, Basil. Subjects Portrayed in Japanese Colour-Prints. New York, 1922. 

Strange, Edward F. The Colour-Prints of Hiroshige. London, New York, Toronto, and Mel- 
bourne, 1925. Reprint; Geneva, 1973. 

Tamba, Tsuneo. The Art of Hiroshige. Tokyo, 1965. 

The University of Michigan Museum of Art. Japanese Prints: Traditions in Costume. Exhibi- 
tion catalogue. Ann Arbor, 1967. 

Ukiyo-e Society of America, Inc., and Pratt Graphic Arts Center. Life and Customs of Edo. 
Exhibition catalogue. New York, 1978. 

Yale University. The Edo Culture in Japanese Prints. Exhibition catalogue. New Haven, 
1972. 

— — — 



Japanese prints are usually classified according to shape and size. 

Type of print Approximate size ( in centimeters ) 

Oban 39.3x25.3 

Aigan 33.3 x 22.7 

Chuban 29.3 x 19 

Hosoban 30.3 x 15 

Koban 21.2 x 15.1 

Hashiraban 66.7x21.2 

Chu-tanzaku 38 x 13 

Hashira-e 73 x 12 

Surimono sizes: 

Kakuban 20.5 x 18.3 

Nagaban 15-20 x 10-15 

All of the prints illustrated are nishiki-e (full color prints). 

Spellings and dates follow the system in Laurance P. Roberts, A Dictionary of Japanese Artists (New York, 1977) 



Catalogue by Elaine Evans Dee and Thomas Michie 
Translations by Sue Kim 
Photographs by Scott Hyde 
Design by Heidi Humphrey 



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